RESEARCH GUIDES

1. In text citations

Even though you have put someone else’s ideas or information in your own words (i.e. paraphrased), you still need to show where the original idea or information came from.  This is all part of the academic writing process.

When citing in text with in an assignment, use the author/s (or editor/s) last name followed by the year of publication.

Example:

Water is a necessary part of every person’s diet and of all the nutrients a body needs to function, it requires more water each day than any other nutrient (Whitney & Rolfes, 2011).

or

Whitney and Rolfes (2011) state the body requires many nutrients to function but highlight that water is of greater importance than any other nutrient.

or

Water is an essential element of anyone’s diet and Whitney and Rolfes (2011) emphasise it is more important than any other nutrient.

Reference list entry:

Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Note: this book did not have a city for place of publication, just a country.

 

1.1. Three, four or five authors 

If a work has three (3), four (4) or five (5) authors, cite all authors the first time and from then on include only the last name of the first author followed by the words et al. (‘et al.’ is Latin for ‘and others’)

Example:

Research can be defined as a systematic method of creating new knowledge or a way to verify existing knowledge (Watson, McKenna, Cowman & Keady, 2008).

Deciding on a research method demands the researcher consider carefully the problem or area of investigation being researched (Watson et al., 2008).

Reference list entry:

Watson, R., McKenna, H., Cowman, S., & Keady, K. (Eds.). (2008). Nursing reseach: Designs and methods. Edinburgh, Scotland:                         Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Note: The people were identified as the editors, hence ‘(Eds.)’ is a shortened version of Editors.

 

1.2. Six or seven authors 

If a work has six (6) or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al. each time you refer to this work.

Example:

(Mikosch et al., 2010)

Reference list entry:

When a source has up to seven (7) authors, include all names in the reference list.

Mikosch, P., Hadrawa, T., Laubreiter, K., Brandl, J., Pilz, J., Stettner, H., & Grimm, G. (2010). Effectiveness of respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia            biofeedback on state-anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(5), 1101-1110.

 

1.3. Eight or more authors

When there are eight (8) or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ each time you refer to this work.

Example:

(Vissing et al., 2004)

Note in the reference list: When there are eight (8) or more authors, include the first six (6) authors names and then use ellipsis points (...) before concluding with the last author’s name.

Reference list entry:

Vissing, K., Brink, M., Lonbro, S., Sorensen, H., Overgaard, K., Danborg, K., ... Aagaard, P. (2008). Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs.             resistance training in untrained young men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1799-1810.

 

1.4. Groups as authors

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g., corporations, associations, government agencies) are usually written in full each time they appear in a text citation.  The names of some group authors (e.g., associations, government agencies) are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter.  In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, use the general rule that you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty.  Some groups are recognised by an abbreviation (e.g., WHO for World Health Organisation). Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 176.

First text citation:   (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2007).

Second & subsequent citations:   (MOH, 2007).

Reference list entry:

Ministry of Health. (2007). Looking at long-term residential care in a rest home or hospital: What you need to know. Wellington, New                     Zealand: Author.

Note: If the author and publisher are the same – Author – can be used to indicate the publisher in place of the full name.  See the example above.

 

Group as author no abbreviation

New Zealand House of Representatives, Health Committee. (2007, August). Inquiry into obesity and type 2 diabetes in New Zealand:                     Report presented to the House of Representatives. Retrieved from http://www.parliament.nz/NR/rdonlyres/47F52D0D-0132-42EF-               A2976AB08980C0EA/61821/DBSCH_SCR_3868_5335.pdf 

In-text citation:

(New Zealand House of Representatives, Health Committee, 2007).

 

1.5. Similar information referred to by more than one author

There may be occasion to refer to more than one source in relation to similar information.  In this case, list the sources in alphabetical order within the brackets, separated by a semi-colon.

Example:

Resilience is seen as the ability to overcome adversary, combat stress and bounce back from hardship (Dawson, 2006; Overton, 2005).

Reference list entry:

Dawson, L. (2006). Wise up!: How to be fearless and fulfilled in midlife. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House New Zealand.

Overton, A. (2005). Stress less: Make stress work for you not against you. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House New Zealand.

 

1.6. Citing a secondary source

Where possible use original material. However, if the information you wish to use is cited by another author, acknowledge the source you have read, showing it is a secondary source.  This demonstrates you have not read the original source but read about it in a secondary source. Within the text citation, use the words “as cited in” to indicate this is a secondary source. In the reference list, include the author and details of the source you actually read. Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 178.

Example:

Fawcett (as cited in Polit & Beck, 2008) outlined the four main concepts…

Reference list entry:

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA:                Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

 

2. Direct quotes

Quoting directly from a work should be done sparingly, in order to emphasis or stress a point in your essay. When using a quote, it must be copied exactly as written in the original work including any punctuation or incorrect spelling.  When using a quote, include the author’s last name, year of publication and page number/s where the quote appears. Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 170173 for further information.

 

2.1. Short quote – less than 40 words

To indicate a short quote (less than 40 words), enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. 

Example:

“Cultural safety is based on attitudes which are difficult to measure.  It needs to be considered alongside other equally important safety requirements such as clinical, ethical, legal and physical safety” (Wepa, 2005, p. 25).

 

2.2. Longer quote – 40 words or more

For a quote that is 40 words or more, include it in your essay as a freestanding piece of text or block form and do not use the quotation marks.  Double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include the author’s name, year of publication and page number/s after the full stop.

Example:

Cultural safety considerations are similar in that students are interacting in a bicultural (two personed)

context, where they are the giver of a health service and the client is the receiver  of that service. These

bicultural interactions will be different with every interaction, but the  nurse’s awareness of the power

differential between themselves and client will be constant. (Wepa, 2005, p. 25)

Reference list entry:

Wepa, D. (Ed.). (2005). Cultural safety in Aotearoa New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.

 

2.3. Quotations from online resources that do not provide page numbers

The APA manual (2010, p. 171-172) states when using direct quotes from online material provide the author, year and page number within brackets ( ).  If the page number is not known, use a paragraph number. 

If the paragraph number could confuse the reader, consider including a section heading e.g. discussion section.

Example:

“The WTN exists to "encourage serendipity" -- the happy accidents of colliding ideas and new relationships that cause the biggest breakthroughs for individuals and institutions” (World Technology Network, 2010, para. 2).

Reference list entry:

World Technology Network. (2010). About WTN: The World Technology Network in action. Retrieved from http://www.wtn.net/aboutus.html

 

3. The reference list

All references or information sources cited in any written work (i.e. essays, reports, research papers, etc.) need to be listed in a reference list on a separate page at the end of your assignment, headed ‘References’ or ‘Reference List’. The reference list provides all the details necessary for the person reading and/or marking the assignment to locate and retrieve any information source cited.  An accurate and properly constructed reference list provides credibility to the written work it accompanies.

Tip: Everything you have cited in text appears in your reference list and,  likewise,  everything that appears in your reference list will have been cited in text!  Check this is the case prior to handing in your assignment. (The exception is when citing a personal communication.  Personal communications are cited in text but do not appear in the reference list. See example 4.21) 

Basic rules

1. The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of the authors’ last names.

2. If there is more than one work by the same author, order them by publication date – oldest  to newest (therefore a 2004 publication would appear before a 2008 publication).

3. If there is no author the title moves to that position and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word, excluding words such as “A” or “The”.  If the title is long, it may be shortened when citing in text.

4. Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a source.

5. The first line of the reference list entry is left-hand justified, while all subsequent lines are consistently indented.

6. Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there is one, plus any proper names – i. e. only those words that would normally be capitalised.

7. Italicise the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial and the title of the web document.

8. Do not create separate lists for each type of information source.  Books, articles, web documents, brochures, etc. are all arranged alphabetically in one list.

 

When creating the reference list entry for an information source you need to identify and record specific details.  It might be useful to remember these Ws!

Who – wrote /edited it – author or editor

When was it written – date

What is it – title of book, title of the article & serial/journal, title of the web document

Where was it published (Books)publisher’s name and place of publication– usually city & country  Where was the article located (Serial/journal) - volume number, issue number and page numbers of the article 

Where you located it (Internet sources) - URL – web address 

The following are the details for common types of references.  The information is usually found on the title page and the back of the title page of a book. For serials/journals, you will find the information included on the article plus the front cover or inside pages of a print serial.  Webpages can take a bit of detective work. You may need to scroll to the bottom of the webpage to find a date and an author. Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 180-192, for further information.

 

3.1. Books

1. Author/s or Editor/s last name (surname) appears first, followed by initials (Bloggs, J.).

2. Year of publication in brackets (2010).

3. Full title of the book.  Capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle, if any, and proper names.  Italicise the title. Use a colon (:) between the title and subtitle.

4. Include the edition number, if applicable, in brackets after the title or subtitle (3rd ed.) or (Rev. ed.).Note: No full stop, after the title, if there is an edition.

5. Place of publication. Always include the city and 2-letter state code when published inside the USA, and the city & country, if published outside the USA (Fort Bragg, CA or Auckland, New Zealand or Benalla, Australia or Weybridge, England).  If there are two or more places included in the source, then use the first one listed.

6. Publisher’s name.  Provide this as briefly as possible. Do not use terms such as Publishers, Co., or Inc. but include the words Books & Press.  When the author and the publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

 

3.2. Book – one author

Collier, A. (2008). The world of tourism and travel. Rosedale, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.

 

3.3. Book – place of publication

Note: always include the city and 2-letter state code when published inside the USA, and city & country if published outside the USA.

Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

Stein, R. (2001). Rick Stein’s seafood. London, England: BBC.

 

3.4. Book – editor

Wepa, D. (Ed.). (2005). Cultural safety in Aotearoa New Zealand. Auckland, New  Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.

 

3.5. Book – editors & edition

Collins, C., & Jackson, S. (Eds.). (2007). Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.

 

3.6. Book – author & publisher are the same

MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author.

 

3.7. Chapter in an edited book

Dear, J., & Underwood, M. (2007). What is the role of exercise in the prevention of back pain? In D. MacAuley & T. Best (Eds.), Evidence-            based sports medicine (2nd ed., pp. 257-280).  Malden, MA: Blackwell.

 

3.8. Serial/journal articles

1. Author/s last name (surname) first, followed by initials.

2. Year of publication in brackets. (2012)

3. Title of article. Capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle, if any, and proper names. Use a colon (:) between the title and subtitle.

4. Title of the serial/journal in full in italics.

5. Volume number, in italics. Do not use “Vol.”  before the number.

6. Issue number. This is bracketed immediately after the volume number but not italicised.

7. Month, season or other designation of publication if there is no volume or issue number.

8. Include all page numbers.

9. Include any Digital Object Identifiers [DOI].

 

3.9. Serial / journal article (print)

Thompson, C. (2010). Facebook: Cautionary tales for nurses. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand, 16(7), 26.

 

3.10. Serial / journal article – more than one author (print)

Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of              Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583.

 

3.11. Serial / journal article (online from a database – e.g. EBSCO or Newztext)

The database name and retrieval date are no longer required. Include the home page of the journal. This may require a quick web search to locate the URL (Refer to the APA manual, p. 191-192, 199).

Marshall, M., Carter, B., Rose, K., & Brotherton, A. (2009). Living with type 1 diabetes: Perceptions of children and their parents. Journal of          Clinical Nursing, 18(12), 1703-1710. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0962-1067

Otherwise, simply reference the journal article as per the print version (check with your lecturer to ensure this is acceptable)

Huy, C., Becker, S., Gomolinsky, U., Klein, T., & Thiel, A. (2008). Health, medical risk factors and bicycle use in everyday life in the over-50 population. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 16(4), 454-464.

 

3.12. Serial / journal – more than one author (online– DOI)

The 6th ed. of the APA manual emphasises the use of DOI (Digital Object Identifiers).  Many publishers, databases and online journals use DOIs. They are alpha-numeric codes that usually appear on the first page of the article.  Copy the DOI exactly as it appears.

Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of               Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.03.007

If the article has no DOI:

Consider providing the home page URL of the journal. If you are accessing the article from a database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL. 

It is not necessary to include the name of the database.

No retrieval date is necessary for content that is not likely to be changed or updated. 

These are DOI resolver / locator sites: http://dx.doi.org/  and http://www.crossref.org/

 

3.13. Serial / Journal article – 8 or more authors (online – no DOI)

Reference list:

Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., … Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New          Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-                  1327/4469/

In-text citation:

(Crooks et al., 2010).

 

3.14. Internet sources

Where possible, include similar information, in the same order, as you would for other types of information and other sources (who, when, what) and then add the electronic retrieval information required for people to locate the material you cited (where).

1. Author/s of the document or information – individual or organisation/corporate author.

2. Date of publication.  If no date is available use (n.d.).

3. Title of the document or webpage in italics.

4. Complete & correct web address/URL.

Note: APA 6th ed. does not require a retrieval date for most online information, although, the APA manual states to include a retrieval date for material that may change over time (e.g. Wikis) (p.192). 

 

3.15. Internet – no author, no date

When using information from the Internet consider carefully the origins of the information.  Is it credible, valid and reliable? Sometimes it is not clear who (author) wrote it or when (date) it was written. 

Reference list:

Pet therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_pet-therapy.htm

In-text citation:

(Pet therapy, n.d.).

 

3.16. Internet – Organisation / Corporate author

Reference list:

Ministry of Health. (2008). Drug policy in New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/wpg_index/About-drugs

In-text citation:

First time cited: (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2008).

Second and subsequent citations: (MOH, 2008).

SPCA New Zealand. (2011). Your dog may be dying from the heat [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.rnzspca.org.nz/news/press-              releases/360-your-dog-may-be-dying-from-the-heat

In-text citation:

(SPCA New Zealand, 2011).

 

4. Examples of various types of information sources

The following are examples of various types of information sources UCOL students and staff may use for their study and assignments. For further details and examples see the APA manual (2010), especially chapters 6 & 7.

 

4.1. Act (statute / legislation)

Reference list:

Copyright Act 1994. (2011, October 7). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz 

In-text citation:

(Copyright Act 1994, 2011). 

 

4.2. Blog post

Reference list:

Liz and Ellory. (2011, January 19). The day of dread(s) [Blog post]. Retrieved from                                                                                                   http://www.travelblog.org/Oceania/Australia/Victoria/Melbourne/St-Kilda/... 

Note: The title of the blog post is not italicised – who knows why not?  The vagaries of APA!  Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 215.

In-text citation:

(Liz and Ellory, 2011).

 

4.3. Brochure / pamphlet

Tamihana, B. (2007). Gambling health promotion: Mate petipeti whakapiki hauora [Brochure]. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Best Care            (Whakapai Hauora) Charitable trust.

 

4.4. Brochure / pamphlet (no author)

Reference list:

Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

Same brochure accessed online

Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Retrieved from https://www.healthed.govt.nz/resource/ageing-well-how-be-          best-you-can-be

In-text citation:

(“Ageing well,” 2009).

 

4.5. Clickview 

see DVD / Video / Motion Picture

 

4.6. Conference Paper

Reference list:

Williams, J., & Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell                         (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand         Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand.

In-text citation:

(Williams & Seary, 2010).

 

4.7. Conference paper  (online)

Reference list:

Cannan, J. (2008). Using practice based learning at a dual-sector tertiary institution: A discussion of current practice. In R. K. Coll, & K.                 Hoskyn (Eds.), Working together: Putting the cooperative into cooperative education. Conference proceedings of the New Zealand               Association for Cooperative Education, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from                                                                                       http://www.nzace.ac.nz/conferences/papers/Proceedings_2008.pdf

MacColl, F., Ker, I., Huband, A., Veith, G., & Taylor, J. (2009, November 12-13). Minimising pedestrian-cyclist conflict on paths. Paper                    presented at the Seventh New Zealand Cycling Conference, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from                                                    http://cyclingconf.org.nz/system/files/NZCyclingConf09_2A_MacColl_PedCyc... 

In-text citation:

First time cited:   (MacColl, Ker, Huband, Veith & Taylor, 2009).

Second and subsequent citations: (MacColl et al., 2009).

 

4.8. Dictionary (print)

Reference list:

Weller, B. F. (Ed.). (2009). Bailliere’s nurses dictionary: For nurses and health care workers (25th ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier.

 

4.9. Dictionary (online)

Reference list:

Cambridge dictionaries online. (2011). Retrieved from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

In-text citation:

(Cambridge dictionaries online, 2011).

 

4.10. Specific entry in an online dictionary (no author or editor)

Reference list:

Acquiescence. (2011). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/acquiescence

In-text citation:

(Acquiescence, 2011).

 

4.11. Specific entry in an online dictionary (editor)

Simpson, J. (Ed.). (2011). Acquiescence. In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/

 

4.12. DVD / Video / Motion Picture (including Clickview & Youtube)

Reference list:

Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), & Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. New                      Zealand: Transmission.

In-text citation:

(Gardiner, Curtis, Michael & Waititi, 2010).

Reference list:

Boland, M. (Producer & Director). (2009). Job seeking skills for young people [Clickview DVD]. Australia: VEA.

elearningNZ. (2009, January 26). Learning in the 21st century: Part 1: What is e-learning? [Video file]. Retrieved from                                           http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKwLERpP78w 

In-text citation:

(elearningNZ, 2009).

 

4.13. e-book (including Safari and Google books)

Reference list:

Rich, J. R. (2011). Your iPad 2 at work [e-book]. Retrieved from http://safaribooksonline.com

Sadun, E., Grothaus, M., & Sande, S. (2011). Taking your iPad 2 to the max (2nd ed.). [e-book]. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.nz

 

4.14. Magazine

Reference list:

White, M. (2011, October). Food, inglorious food. North & South, 307, 96-97. 

Ng, A. (2011, October-December). Brush with history. Habitus, 13, 83-87.

In-text citation:

(Ng, 2011).

 

4.15. Moodle

Note: It is advisable to check with your lecturer prior to referencing information from Moodle. Some lecturers may not permit it. Provide enough details to clearly show where you retrieved the information.

Darragh, L. (2010). Professional and cultural practice 513: Consent: Patient care in professional and cultural practice [Moodle]. Palmerston          North, New Zealand: UCOL.

 

4.16. Music recording (Whole album)

Reference list:

Midler, B. (2010). Memories of you [CD]. London, England: Warner Music UK.

In-text citation:

(Midler, 2010).

Reference list:

Nga Pihi. (2011). Taki mei ao: Maori songs for children [CD]. New Zealand: Universal Children’s Audio.

In-text citation:

(Nga Pihi, 2011).

 

4.17. Music recording (Song from album)

Reference list:

Midler, B. (2010). The folks who live on the hill. On Memories of you [CD]. London, England: Warner Music UK.

In-text citation:

The heartfelt “The folks who live on the hill” provides an ideal vehicle for Midler to showcase her talents (Midler, 2010, track 5).

Reference list:

Nga Pihi. (2011). Korikori. On Taku meiao: Maori songs for children [CD]. New Zealand: Universal Children’s Audio.

In-text citation:

The children responded positively to “Korikori” (Nga Pihi, 2011, track 14).

 

4.18. Newspaper article

Matthews, L. (2011, November 23). Foodbanks urge public to give generously. Manawatu Standard, p. 4.

 

4.19. Newspaper article (no author)

Reference list:

Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, November 23). Manawatu Standard, p. 5. 

In-text citation:

Shorten the title and enclose in quotation marks.

(“Little blue penguins”, 2011).

 

4.20. Newspaper  (online)

Rogers, C. (2011, November 26). Smartphone could replace wallets. The Dominion Post. Retrieved from                                                               http://www.stuff.co.nz/technology/gadgets/6038621/Smartphone-could-repla...

 

4.21. Personal communication

This refers to letters, including email, interviews, telephone conversations and discussions on placement or work experience.  Personal communications are cited in-text only and are NOT included in the reference list. Refer to APA manual, 2010, p.179.

In-text citation:

The no-tillage technology has revolutionised the way arable farmers manage their operation (W.R. Ritchie, personal communication, September 30, 2011).

 

4.22. Podcast (audio or video)

Rozaieski, B. (2011). Logan cabinet shoppe: Episode 37: Entertainment center molding [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://blip.tv/hand-tools-techniques/episode-37-entertainmentcenter-mold... 

 

4.23. Software (including apps)

UBM Medica. (2010). iMIMS (Version1.2.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from  http://itunes.apple.com

 

4.24. Television programme

Flanagan, A., & Philipson, A. (Series producers & directors). (2011). 24 hours in A & E [Television series]. Belfast, Ireland: Channel 4.

 

4.25. Thesis (print)

Smith, T. L. (2008). Change, choice and difference: The case of RN to BN degree programmes for registered nurses (Master’s thesis).                Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

 

4.26. Thesis (online)

Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales,                        Sydney, Australia). Retrieved fromhttp://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/44704

 

4.27. Wikis (including Wikipedia)

Wikis can generally be written and edited by more than one person. Use wiki information wisely.  Wikipedia can be a good starting point to discover background information on a topic and you can use the citations and links in any entry to verify information and locate original sources. Check with your lecturer – Are you allowed to use Wikipedia as a reference source? 

Reference list

Moodle. (2011). Retrieved November 28, 2011, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moodle

In-text citation

(Moodle, 2011).

 

4.28. Youtube see – DVD / Video / Motion picture  

 

5. Reference List

Acquiescence. (2011). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/acquiescence

Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Retrieved from https://www.healthed.govt.nz/resource/ageing-well-how-be-          best-you-can-be

Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC:                Author.

Boland, M. (Producer & Director). (2009). Job seeking skills for young people [Clickview DVD]. Australia: VEA.

Cambridge dictionaries online. (2011). Retrieved from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

Cannan, J. (2008). Using practice based learning at a dual-sector tertiary institution: A discussion of current practice. In R. K. Coll, & K.                 Hoskyn (Eds.), Working together: Putting the cooperative into cooperative education. Conference proceedings of the New Zealand               Association for Cooperative Education, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from                                                                                       http://www.nzace.ac.nz/conferences/papers/Proceedings_2008.pdf

Collier, A. (2008). The world of tourism and travel. Rosedale, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.

Collins, C., & Jackson, S. (Eds.). (2007). Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.

Copyright Act 1994. (2011, October 7). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz

Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., ... Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New             Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-                   1327/4469/

Darragh, L. (2010). Professional and cultural practice 513: Consent: Patient care in professional and cultural practice [Moodle]. Palmerston          North, New Zealand: UCOL.

Dawson, L. (2006). Wise up!: How to be fearless and fulfilled in midlife. Auckland, New Zealand: Randon House New Zealand.

Dear, J., & Underwood, M. (2007). What is the role of exercise in the prevention of back pain? In D. MacAuley & T. Best (Eds.), Evidence-            based sports medicine (2nd ed., pp. 257-280).  Malden, MA: Blackwell.

elearningNZ. (2009, January 26). Learning in the 21st century: Part 1: What is e-learning? [Video file]. Retrieved from                                              http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKwLERpP78w

Flanagan, A., & Philipson, A. (Series producers & directors). (2011). 24 hours in A & E [Television series]. Belfast, Ireland: Channel 4.

Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of              Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583.

Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), & Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. New                      Zealand: Transmission.

Huy, C., Becker, S., Gomolinsky, U., Klein, T., & Thiel, A. (2008). Health, medical risk factors and bicycle use in everyday life in the over-50         population. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 16(4), 454-464.

Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, November 23). Manawatu Standard, p. 5.

Liz and Ellory. (2011, January 19). The day of dread(s) [Blog post]. Retrieved from                                                                                                   http://www.travelblog.org/Oceania/Australia/Victoria/Melbourne/St-Kilda/...

MacColl, F., Ker, I., Huband, A., Veith, G., & Taylor, J. (2009, November 12-13). Minimising pedestrian-cyclist conflict on paths. Paper                     presented at the Seventh New Zealand Cycling Conference, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from                                                     http://cyclingconf.org.nz/system/files/NZCyclingConf09_2A_MacColl_PedCyc...

Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral  dissertation, The University of New South Wales,                        Sydney, Australia). Retrieved fromhttp://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/44704

Marshall, M., Carter, B., Rose, K., & Brotherton, A. (2009). Living with type 1 diabetes: Perceptions of children and their parents. Journal of          Clinical Nursing, 18(12), 1703-1710. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0962- 1067

Matthews, L. (2011, November 23). Foodbanks urge public to give generously. Manawatu Standard, p. 4.

MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author.

Midler, B. (2010). The folks who live on the hill. On Memories of you [CD]. London, England: Warner Music UK.

Midler, B. (2010). Memories of you [CD]. London, England: Warner Music UK.

Mikosch, P., Hadrawa, T., Laubreiter, K., Brandl, J., Pilz, J., Stettner, H., & Grimm, G. (2010). Effectiveness of respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia             biofeedback on state-anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(5), 1101-1110.

Ministry of Health. (2007). Looking at long-term residential care in a rest home or hospital: What you need to know. Wellington, New                      Zealand: Author.

Ministry of Health. (2008). Drug policy in New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/wpg_index/About-drugs

Moodle. (2011). Retrieved November 28, 2011, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moodle

Ng, A. (2011, October-December). Brush with history. Habitus, 13, 83-87.

Nga Pihi. (2011). Korikori. On Taku meiao: Maori songs for children [CD]. New Zealand: Universal Children’s Audio.

Nga Pihi. (2011). Taki mei ao: Maori songs for children [CD]. New Zealand: Universal Children’s Audio.

Overton, A. (2005). Stress less: Make stress work for you not against you. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House New Zealand.

Pet therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_pet-therapy.htm

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA:             Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

Rich, J. R. (2011). Your iPad 2 at work [e-book]. Retrieved from http://safaribooksonline.com

Rogers, C. (2011, November 26). Smartphone could replace wallets. The Dominion Post. Retrieved from                                                                 http://www.stuff.co.nz/technology/gadgets/6038621/Smartphone-could-repla...

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Sadun, E., Grothaus, M., & Sande, S. (2011). Taking your iPad 2 to the max (2nd ed.). [e-book]. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.nz

Simpson, J. (Ed.). (2011). Acquiescence. In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/

Smith, T. L. (2008). Change, choice and difference: The case of RN to BN degree programmes for registered nurses (Master’s thesis).                Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

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Stein, R. (2001). Rick Stein's seafood. London, England: BBC.

Tamihana, B. (2007). Gambling health promotion: Mate petipeti whakapiki hauora [Brochure]. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Best Care            (Whakapai Hauora) Charitable trust.

Thompson, C. (2010). Facebook: Cautionary tale for nurses. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand, 16(7), 26.

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Watson, R., McKenna, H., Cowman, S., & Keady, K. (Eds.). (2008). Nursing reseach: Designs and methods. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill           Livingstone Elsevier.

Weller, B. F. (Ed.). (2009). Bailliere’s nurses dictionary: For nurses and health care workers (25th ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier.

Wepa, D. (Ed.). (2005). Cultural safety in Aotearoa New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson New Zealand.

White, M. (2011, October). Food, inglorious food. North & South, 307, 96-97.

Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Williams, J., & Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.),               Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand                   Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand.

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MLA BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION

MUN LIBRARIES MLA STYLE (7th ed.) WORKS CITED LIST GUIDE

Citing within your paper: Use brief citations immediately after a quote, reference to a source, or
paraphrase.

The brief citation gives the author and page number of the source you are referring to. Example: (Smith
182).

MLA Style requires that you indicate the "medium" of publication, such as: Print, Web, CD, MP3 file,
Audiocassette, DVD, Videocassette, E-mail, or Microform. For more examples see the MLA Handbook for
Writers of Research Papers.

Use special abbreviations to indicate when the following required information is unavailable:
n.p. - no publisher n.d. - no publication date n.pag. – no page number

*NOTE: Works Cited list should be double-spaced*

BOOKS

Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of
Publication. Medium.

Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason. Adrift on an Ice Pan. St. John’s: Creative, 1992. Print.

BOOK WITH MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR:

Katona, Steven K.,Valerie Rough, and David T. Richardson. A Field Guide to the Whales, Porpoises,
    and Seals from Cape Cod to Newfoundland. 4th ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press,
    1993. Print.

BOOK WITH MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS:

Storey, Keith, et al. Family Life Impacts of Offshore Oil and Gas Employment. St. John’s: Institute of
    Social and Economic Research, 1989. Print.

EDITED BOOK:

State the editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed." for one editor, or "eds." for multiple editors.

Kelly, Ursula, and Elizabeth Yeoman, eds. Despite this Loss: Essays on Culture, Memory and Identity
    In Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, NL: Iser Books, 2010. Print.

EDITED BOOK (Editor in Addition to Author):

When editors' names follow the title, only use "Ed." (not "Eds.") as it refers to "Edited by".

Seary, Edgar Ronald. Place Names of the Northern Peninsula. Ed. Robert Hollett and William J. Kirwin.
    St. John's, NL: University of Newfoundland, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 2000. Print.

CHAPTER/ARTICLE IN AN EDITED BOOK:

Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Title of Book. Ed. Editor Firstname Lastname.
    Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium.

Handcock, W. Gordon. “English Migration to Newfoundland.” Peopling of Newfoundland: Essays in
    Historical Geography. Ed. John J. Mannion. St. John’s: Memorial University of Newfoundland,
    Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1977. 15-48. Print.

TRANSLATED BOOK:
After the title, add "Trans." followed by the translator's/translators' name(s):

Carrier, Roch. La Guerre, Yes Sir! Trans. Sheila Fischman. Toronto: Anansi, 1970. Print.

E-BOOK:
Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of
    Database or Website. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Hubbard, Jennifer Mary. A Science on the Scales: The Rise of Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Biology,
    1898-1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006. ebrary. Web. 9 Apr. 2009.

EDITION OF A BOOK, OTHER THAN THE FIRST:
Add the number of the edition after the title, and after the name of any editor(s), translator(s), or compilers(s).

Butt, Kirk R. Early Settlers of Bay St. George. 2nd ed. Whitby, ON: Boonen Books, 2007. Print.

VOLUME OF A BOOK:
Add the volume number after the title, and after the edition.

Parsons, Robert. Lost at Sea. Vol. 2. St. John's: Creative Publishers, 1992. Print.

ARTICLES
JOURNAL ARTICLE (PRINT):
Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): Pages.
    Medium.

Cox, Gordon. "A Newfoundland Christmas Caroling Tradition.” Folk Music Journal 3.3 (1977): 242-
    60. Print.

JOURNAL ARTICLE (ARTICLE INDEX):
Author. "Title of the article." Name of the Journal Volume number. Issue number (Year):
    Pages. Name of the Article Index. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Thomas, Gerald. “Functions of the Newfoundland Outhouse.” Western Folklore 48.3 (1989): 221-43.
    JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2008.

JOURNAL ARTICLE (INTERNET):
Author. "Title of the Article." Name of the Journal Volume. Issue (Year): Pages. Medium. Date
you accessed it.

Lackenbauer, Whitney P. “War, Memory, and the Newfoundland Regiment at Gallipoli.”
    Newfoundland and Labrador Studies 15.2 (1999): 176-214. Web. 6 Sept. 2009.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (PRINT):
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Day Mon. Year: Pages. Medium.

Hudson, Catherine. “Sunken Boat Discovered in Deer Lake.” Western Star [Corner Brook] 16 Oct.
    2009: 3. Print.
 
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (ARTICLE INDEX):
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Day Mon. Year: Pages. Name of the Article
     Index. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Pitts, Gordon. “The Fishery is Dead; Long Live the Fishery.” Globe and Mail 18 Feb. 2008: B3.
    CBCA Complete. Web. 27 Aug. 2009.

WEB MAGAZINE ARTICLE:
Author Lastname, Firstname (if available). “Title of Article.” Name of Web Magazine. Name of
 publisher, Day Mon. Year: Pages. Medium. Date you accessed it.

Moher, Frank. “Son of the Rock.” Backofthebook.ca: Canada’s Online Magazine. Single Lane
    Media, 11 Oct 2008: n.pag. Web. 14 Jan. 2009.

WEB SITES
ENTIRE WEBSITE:
Author Lastname, Firstname (if available). Name of Site. Name of institution/organization
    affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date site was created (if available). Medium.
    Date you accessed it.

Folk Arts Society: Living our Traditions. The Folk Arts Society, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.

PAGE/DOCUMENT ON A WEB SITE:
Author Lastname, Firstname (if available). “Title of Page.” Name of Site. Name of
    institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date (if available).
    Medium. Date you accessed it.

Rose, Crystal. “How to Write Citations and Bibliographies in MLA Style (7th Edition).” Memorial
University Libraries. Memorial University of Newfoundland, 12 Dec. 2011. Web. 9 Jan 2012.

OTHER
CLASS LECTURE:
Instructor's Lastname, Firstname. Course Name and Number. University name, Location. Day
    Mon. Year. Medium.

Lewis, Robert. Folklore 2230: Newfoundland Society and Culture. Memorial University, St. John's,
    NL. 5 Feb. 2011. Class lecture.

CLASS NOTES ON COURSE WEBSITE (D2L OR SHAREPOINT):
Instructor's Lastname, Firstname. Course Name and Number. University, Day Mon. Year. (if
    available). Medium. Date you accessed it.

Dalton, Mary. ENGL 3155: Newfoundland Literature. Memorial University, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2012.

COURSEPACK:
If you need to cite a source from a custom course package, here are two suggestions. However, it's best
to first check with the course instructor.
    1. Find the full citation where the article, chapter, etc. was originally published and cite accordingly. The full citations MAY be included in the coursepack. If not, search the library's catalogue or article indexes, Google Scholar, or ask a librarian.
    2. Treat the coursepack as an anthology and the course instructor as compiler:

Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title." Title of Coursepack. Comp. Instructor's Firstname
    Lastname. Course name and number (if not apparent from coursepack title). University,
    Location. Semester. Pages. Medium.

Pittman, Al. "Becky's Waltz." Newfoundland Literature. Comp. Marc Thackray. English 2155.
    Memorial University, Corner Brook, NL. Winter 2009. N. pag. Print.

DICTIONARY/ENCYCLOPEDIA (PRINT):
For commonly used or well-known reference books, do not give full publication information; only provide edition and year of publication.

Author (if available). "Title of Entry." Dictionary/Encyclopedia Name. Ed. Editor's name.
    Edition. Volume. Year of Publication. Medium.

Jamieson, Donald C. "I Saw the Fight for Confederation." The Book of Newfoundland. Ed. Joseph R.
Smallwood. Vol. 3. 1967. Print.

DICTIONARY/ENCYCLOPEDIA (ONLINE):
Author (if available). "Title of Entry." Dictionary/Encyclopedia Name. Name of
    institution/organization affiliated with site (sponsor or publisher). Date of Publication.
    Medium. Date you accessed it.

"Moose." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. 2009.
    Web. 29 Feb. 2009.

DISSERTATION OR THESIS (PRINT):
Author Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Dissertation/Thesis." Diss. Name of University, Year.
    Medium.

Breslin, Samantha. "Living with Music: An Ethnography of Sessions in St. John's, Newfoundland."
    Diss. Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2011. Print.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT, CANADIAN (PRINT):
Country or Province. Name of Government Agency. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.
    Medium.

Newfoundland and Labrador. Dept. of Tourism, Culture, and Recreation. A Cultural Policy for
    Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, NL: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Dept.
    of Tourism, Culture and Recreation, 2002. Print.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT, CANADIAN (INTERNET):
Country or Province. Name of Government Agency. "Title of Document." Name of Website.
    Name of institution/organization affiliated with site, document date. Medium. Date you
    accessed it.

Canada. Dept. of Canadian Heritage. "Meeting the Sovereign and Members of the Royal Family."
    Canadian Heritage. Canada. Dept. of Canadian Heritage, 14 Oct. 2010. Web. 12 Dec. 2011.

GRAPHIC NOVEL:
Many graphic novels are created through collaboration. Begin the entry with the name of the person
Whose contribution is most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person's
role. List other collaborators after the title in the order in which they appear on the graphic novel's title
page, also identifying their roles. For a graphic novel created entirely by one person, cite it like a book
with one author.

Miller, Frank, writer. Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. Illustrated by Klaus Janson. Colored by Lynn
    Varley. Lettered by John Costanza. New York: DC Comics, 1997. Print.

INTERVIEW:
Name of person interviewed. Type of interview (Personal interview, Telephone interview). Date
of interview Day Mon. Year.

Smith, John. Personal interview. 12 Nov. 2010.

Movie:
Title. Dir. Director’s name. Name of studio, production company, or distributor, year. Medium.

Down to the Dirt. Dir. Justin Simms. Newfoundland Films Inc, 2008. Film.

CHICAGO BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION

Notes: Give a complete citation the first time you cite a source in a footnote or endnote (like the examples below). If you refer to the same source again, you may use a shortened form for notes: 7. author last name, shortened title, page #.

BOOKS
Book, 1 author
Note:
    1. Miriam Carol Wright, A Fishery for Modern Times: The State and the Industrialization of the
Newfoundland Fishery, 1934-1968 (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001), 27-28.

Bibliography:
Wright, Miriam Carol. A Fishery for Modern Times: The State and the Industrialization of the Newfoundland Fishery,1934-1968. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Book, multiple authors
List all authors' names, unless there are more than 10. (See section 14.76 of the Chicago Manual).

Note:
    2. Steven K. Katona, Valerie Rough, and David T. Richardson, A Field Guide to the Whales, Porpoises,and Seals from Cape Cod to Newfoundland, 4th ed. (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993), 182.

Bibliography:
Katona, Steven K., Valerie Rough, and David T. Richardson. A Field Guide to the Whales, Porpoises, and
    Seals from Cape Cod to Newfoundland. 4th ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.

E-Book (Downloaded)
If you downloaded it to your computer or e-book reader, indicate the format (Kindle edition, Kobo
edition, PDF e-book, Sony Reader e-book).

Note:
    3. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kobo edition, 174.

Bibliography:
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kobo edition.

E-Book (Online)
Include the DOI. If it is not available, include the URL.

Note:
     4. Jennifer Mary Hubbard, A Science on the Scales: The Rise of Canadian Atlantic Fisheries
Biology, 1898-1939 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006), 276-77, http://qe2a
proxy.mun.ca/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/memorial/Doc?id=10218926.

Bibliography:
Hubbard, Jennifer Mary. A Science on the Scales: The Rise of Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Biology, 1898-
    1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006. http://qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/login?url=http://
    site.ebrary.com/ lib/memorial/Doc?id=10218926.

Edited Book (editor instead of an author)
Note:
    5. Ursula Kelly and Elizabeth Yeoman, eds., Despite this Loss: Essays on Culture, Memory and
Identity in Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's, NL: Iser Books, 2010), 117.

Bibliography:
Kelly, Ursula and Elizabeth Yeoman, eds. Despite this Loss: Essays on Culture, Memory and Identity
    in Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, NL: Iser Books, 2010.

Edited Book (editor in addition to an author)
When editors' names follow the title, only use "ed." (not "eds.") as it refers to "edited by".
Note:
    6. Al Pittman, An Island in the Sky: Selected Poetry of Al Pittman, ed. Martin Ware and Stephanie
Mckenzie (St. John's, NL: Breakwater, 2003), 129.

Bibliography:
Pittman, Al. An Island in the Sky: Selected Poetry of Al Pittman. Edited by Martin Ware and Stephanie
    Mckenzie. St. John's, NL: Breakwater, 2003.

Article/Chapter in a Book
Note:
    7. W. Gordon Handcock, "English Migration to Newfoundland," in Peopling of Newfoundland:
Essays in Historical Geography, ed. John J. Mannion (St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1977), 36.

Bibliography:
Handcock, W. Gordon. "English Migration to Newfoundland." In Peopling of Newfoundland: Essays in
    Historical Geography. Edited by John J. Mannion, 15-48. St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1977.

Translated Book
Note:
    8. Roch Carrier, La Guerre, Yes Sir!, trans. Sheila Fischman (Toronto: Anansi, 1970), 16.

Bibliography:
Carrier, Roch. La Guerre, Yes Sir! Translated by Sheila Fischman. Toronto: Anansi, 1970.

Edition of a Book (other than the first)
Add the number of the edition after the title, and after the name of any editor(s) or translator(s).
Note:
    9. Kirk R. Butt, Early Settlers of Bay St. George, 2nd ed. (Whitby, ON: Boonen Books, 2007), 29.

Bibliography:
Butt, Kirk R. Early Settlers of Bay St. George. 2nd ed. Whitby, ON: Boonen Books, 2007.

ARTICLES
Journal article, 1 author (Print)
Note:
    10. Gordon Cox, "A Newfoundland Christmas Caroling Tradition," Folk Music Journal 3, no. 3
(1977): 249.

Bibliography:
Cox, Gordon. "A Newfoundland Christmas Caroling Tradition." Folk Music Journal 3, no. 3 (1977): 242-60.

 Journal article, multiple authors (Print)
List all authors' names, unless there are more than 10 (See section 14.76 of the Chicago Manual).
Note:
    11. Lawrence C. Hamilton, Richard L. Haedrich, and Cynthia M. Duncan, "Above and below the
Water: Social/Ecological Transformation in Northwest Newfoundland," Population and Environment 25, no. 3 (2007): 198.

Bibliography:
Hamilton, Lawrence C., Richard L. Haedrich, and Cynthia M. Duncan. "Above and below the Water:
    Social/Ecological Transformation in Northwest Newfoundland." Population and Environment 25, no. 3 (2007): 195-215.

Journal article (Online)
Include the DOI. If it is not available, include the URL.
Note:
     12. Pierre Pepin, Eugene Colbourne, and Gary Maillet, "Seasonal Patterns in Zooplankton
Community Structure on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf," Progress in Oceanography 91, no. 3
(2011): 280, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2011.01.003.

Bibliography:
Pepin, Pierre, Eugene Colbourne, and Gary Maillet. "Seasonal Patterns in Zooplankton Community Structure on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf." Progress in Oceanography 91, no. 3 (2011): 273-285. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2011.01.003.

Magazine Article
For online magazine articles, include the URL (or DOI, if available) at the end of the citation. If there are
no page numbers, identify the location in your note by adding a description (like a heading or section).

Note:
     13. Frank Moher, "Son of the Rock," Backofthebook.ca: Canada's Online Magazine, October 11,
2008,para. 5, http://backofthebook.ca/2008/10/11/son-of-the-rock/331/

Bibliography:
In Chicago Style, magazine articles are rarely included in bibliographies

Newspaper Article
Omit page numbers for newspapers. For online newspaper articles, include the URL at the end of the citation.
Note:
    14. Gordon Pitts, "The Fishery is Dead; Long Live the Fishery." Globe and Mail, February 18, 2008.

Bibliography:
In Chicago Style, newspaper articles are rarely included in bibliographies.

WEB SITES
Include as much of the following information as you can: author, "title or description of the website/page",
owner/sponsor of the site, publication date or date of revision (if no such date is available include date of access), URL.

Note:
    5. Crystal Rose, "How to Write Notes and Bibliographies in Chicago Style 16th Edition,"
Memorial University Libraries, last modified January 20, 2012,
http://www.library.mun.ca/guides/howto/chicago_notes_bibliographies.php.

Bibliography:
Chicago Style (16th ed.) recommends only citing website content in notes. Do not include in bibliography.

OTHER
Class lecture, speech, or academic talk
Put the lecture title in quotation marks after the speaker's name. If the lecture is untitled, place the
course name in square brackets.

Note:
     17. John Bodner, [Folklore and Popular Culture] (lecture, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University
Of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, February 15, 2008).

Bibliography:
Bodner, John. [Folklore and Popular Culture]. Lecture, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of
    Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, February 15, 2008.

Class Notes on Course Website (D2L or My Grenfell)
Include date they were created, posted or last revised; If no such date is available include date of access.
Include URL.

Note:
    18. John Bodner, "Folksong" (course notes for Folklore and Popular Culture, Grenfell Campus,
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, February 15, 2008),
http://online.mun.ca/folk1000%20jbodner/Feb%2015%202008.pdf

Bibliography:
Bodner, John. "Folksong." Course notes for Folklore and Popular Culture, Grenfell Campus, Memorial
    University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, February 15, 2008. http://online.mun.ca/
    folk1000%20jbodner/Feb%2015%202008.pdf.

Course Pack
If you need to cite a source from a custom course package, here are two suggestions. However, it's best
to first check with the course instructor.

1. Find the full citation where the article, chapter, etc. was originally published and cite accordingly. The
full citations MAY be included in the coursepack. If not, search the library's catalogue or article indexes,
Google Scholar, or ask a librarian.
OR
2. Treat the coursepack as an anthology and the course instructor as compiler:

Note:
    18. Elliott Oring, "Transformations: The Fantasy of The Wicked Stepmother," in [Coursepack for
FOLK 1000: Introduction to Folklore, Fall 2009], comp. John Bodner (Memorial University of
Newfoundland, Grenfell Campus, Corner Brook, NL).

Bibliography:
If you cite the unpublished coursepack, cite it in the notes only; Omit from bibliography.

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Print)
For commonly used or well-known reference books, do not give full publication information; only
provide edition, if other than first. Cite the title of the entry proceeded by s.v., meaning sub verbo, or
"under the word"; plural s.vv.).

Note:
    19. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "Salvation."

Bibliography:
In Chicago Style, dictionaries and encyclopedias do not need to be included in bibliographies.

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Online)
Include publication or last revision date; If no such date is available include date of access. Include the URL.
Note:
    20. Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed., s.v. "Anomie," accessed January 20, 2012,
http://www.oxfordreference.com.qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/views/ENTRY.html?subvie....

Government Document, Canadian (Print)
The Chicago Manual recommends consulting the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (7th edition)
for more specific information.

Note:
    21. Statistics Canada, A National Overview: Population and Dwelling Counts, 2006 Census
(Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2007), p. 279-80.

Bibliography:
Statistics Canada. A National Overview: Population and Dwelling Counts, 2006 Census. Ottawa: Statistics
    Canada, 2007.

Government Document, Canadian (Online)
Include publication or last revision date; If no such date is available include date of access. Include the
URL.

Note:
    22. Environment Canada, "Canada's Emission Trends" (July, 2011), p. 19, http://www.ec.gc.ca/
Publications/E197D5E7-1AE3-4A06-B4FC-CB74EAAAA60F/CanadasEmissionsTrends.pdf.

Bibliography:
Environment Canada. "Canada's Emission Trends." July, 2011. http://www.ec.gc.ca/Publications/E197D5E7-1AE3-4A06-B4FC-CB74EAAAA60F/Ca....

Personal Communication (interview, conversation, letter, or email)
Note:
    23. John A. Smith, telephone conversation with author, May 29, 2005.
    24. Dr. David Peddle, interview by author, Corner Brook, NL, March 22, 2011.

Bibliography:
Personal communications are typically omitted from the bibliography unless they are available for others to
access (for example, in a library or archive, or posted online).

Thesis/Dissertation
If accessed online, add the URL.
Note:
    25. Dorothy C. Anger, "Putting it Back Together: Micmac Political Identity in Newfoundland,"
(master's thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1983), 142,
http://collections.mun.ca/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/theses&CISOPTR=301...

Bibliography:
Anger, Dorothy C. "Putting it Back Together: Micmac Political Identity in Newfoundland." Master's thesis,
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1983. http://collections.mun.ca/cdm4/document.php?
    document.php?CISOROOT=/theses&CISOPTR=301551&REC=13

PATHFINDER

HEALTH

CALL NUMBER

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY

RA

440.85

F56

2013

Fink, A. (2013). Evidence-based public health practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

“Designed for students and practitioners, this practical book shows how to do evidence-based research in public health. As a great deal of evidence-based practice occurs online, it focuses on how to find, use, and interpret online sources of public health information. It also includes examples of community-based participatory research and shows how to link data with community preferences and needs. Each chapter begins with specific learning objectives and concludes with practice exercises geared to the objectives. Each chapter also contains a list of key terms that are an essential part of an evidence-based public health practitioner’s vocabulary. The book includes a comprehensive glossary and hundreds of online and print references, examples, and charts.”

HC

455

P37

2003

Peralta, G. L., Hunt, J. M., & Asian Development Bank. (2003). A primer on health impacts of development programs. Manila: Regional and Sustainable Development Dept., Asian Development Bank.

 

“Acknowledging that pollution tends to be concentrated in poor residential areas, this overview of environmental impact proposes that all sectors of development utilize environmentally friendly policies. Designing development policies and selecting investment allocations that support environmental health are discussed as a prime objective to all development programs. Social sectors including agriculture, forestry, water and sanitation, energy, transportation, and education are covered in detail to provide urban and rural planners the information required to implement development projects that respect the health of all citizens.”

RA

541

M45

H43

2001

Asian Development Bank. (2001). Health and education needs of ethnic minorities in the Greater Mekong subregion. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

 

“In the Greater Mekong subregion, the poorest populations are ethnic minorities living in remote areas. Improving the health and education of these communities is critical for reducing poverty. This report contains substantial new information and analysis related to ethnic minorities in the subregion, which is of use to several stakeholders including government policy makers, nongovernment organizations, international agencies, and the academic community.”

RA

395

A7

H43

1999

Health sector reform in Asia and the Pacific: Options for developing countries. (1999). Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

HC

415

P6

P6844

2008

Steele, P., Oviedo, G., & McCauley, D. (Eds.). (2007). Poverty, health, and ecosystems: experience from Asia. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

 

“It is today widely acknowledged both by the development and conservation communities that a vital relationship exists between the sound management of ecosystems, the determinants of poverty and the effectiveness of poverty alleviation efforts. Although levels of vulnerability remain high in urban areas, the relationship is closer still in rural settings where the majority of poor remain largely dependent upon the productivity and sustainability of natural ecosystems. This publication is the result of any analysis undertaken under the aegis of the Asian Development Bank’s Poverty and Environment Program which aims to accelerate learning about poverty-environment relationships by gathering new knowledge on effective approaches to environmental management and poverty reduction. Using sixteen Asian-based case studies to document the relationships between poverty, health and natural resources management, it seeks to analyse lessons that can be drawn and used to achieve improved environmental management and poverty reduction.”

PUBLIC MANAGEMENT

CALL NUMBER

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY

JF

1525

E8

Et37

2013

Frederickson, H. G., & Ghere, R. K. (Eds.). (2013). Ethics in public management (2nd ed.). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

JF

1351

H874

2012

Hughes, O. E. (2012). Public management and administration: An introduction. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

 

"In recent years there has been a transformation in the management of the public sector across many parts of the world. The rigid, bureaucratic form of public administration which dominated for most of the twentieth century has been replaced in the twenty-first century by a more flexible, market-based form of public management. As public management has developed away from New Public Management, it has moved even further away from the traditional model of administration. Public Management and Administration introduces and assesses the principles and theories underlying changes in the management of the public sector. Public management models are being adopted all over the world and the basis, nature and dimensions of these - as well as their theoretical underpinnings and differences - are considered in detail. The fourth edition of this highly successful text has been substantially revised and updated throughout and includes a new chapter on governance."

KF

5402

B43

2010

Beckett, J. (2010). Public management and the rule of law. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.

 

“This book, written for current or prospective public managers, includes practical tools and guidelines on how to carry out government responsibilities in a lawful and constitutional manner.”

JF

1351

G697

2009

Greener, I. (2009). Public management: A critical text. New York : Palgrave Macmillan.

 

“Taking a critical approach, Ian Greener examines the key concepts and ideas of public management, not only in terms of their efficacy, but also in their private management and societal context. Throughout the text comparative case studies introduce students to public management ideas from the US, the UK, and Europe.”

JF

1351

T73

2007

Christensen, T., & Laegreid, P. (Eds.). (2007). Transcending new public management: The transformation of public sector reforms. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

 

“Following on from the success of the editors previous book, New Public Management: The Transformation of Ideas and Practice, which examined the public reform process up to the end of the last decade, this new volume draws on this previous knowledge both theoretically and empirically. It includes and contrasts with the post-new public management reform development in Denmark, Norway and Sweden and with Australia and New Zealand. In addition to new contributing authors, many of the contributors to the first volume also appear in this volume making it an ideal follow up and a must for courses and libraries that are currently using the earlier book. This book is an important contribution to the study of public administration and particularly to the reform of public management. Comprehensive and analytical, this volume provides an integrating framework for analysis.”

GOVERNANCE

CALL NUMBER

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY

HC

442

Z82

C36

2000

Kato, T., Kaplan, J. A., Sophal, C., & Sopheap, R. (2000). Cambodia: Enhancing governance for sustainable development. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

 

“This study, prepared by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute under the overall supervision of ADB, shows that the Government of Cambodia's reform programs, if implemented on a full scale, would likewise have a major positive impact on Cambodia's economy in the coming two decades.”

JQ

1410

M43

2000

Mendoza, M. L. (Ed.). (2000). Measuring good governance in the Philippines. Pasig City, Philippines: Development Academy of the Philippines.

 

 

JA

66

F85

2004

Fukuyama, F. (2004). State-building: governance and world order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

 

“Weak or failed states - where no government is in control - are the source of many of the world's most serious problems, from poverty, AIDS and drugs to terrorism. What can be done to help? The problem of weak states and the need for state-building has existed for many years, but it has been urgent since September 11 and Afghanistan and Iraq. The formation of proper public institutions, such as an honest police force, uncorrupted courts, functioning schools and medical services and a strong civil service, is fraught with difficulties. We know how to help with resources, people and technology across borders, but state building requires methods that are not easily transported. The ability to create healthy states from nothing has suddenly risen to the top of the world agenda. State building has become a crucial matter of global security. In this hugely important book, Francis Fukuyama explains the concept of state-building and discusses the problems and causes of state weakness and its national and international effects.”

HC

412

K449

1998

Beschel, R. P. (1998). Key themes and priorities for governance and capacity building in the Asian and Pacific region. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

JQ

1499

A58

R66

1996

Root, H. L., & Asian Development Bank. (1996). Small countries, big lessons: Governance and the rise of East Asia. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

 

“Drawing lessons from the rapid economic rise of East Asia, the book documents how institutions that embody universal standards of good governance have changed the course of development in seven East Asian countries and integrated them into the world economy. Through analysis of East Asia transition from a network to a contract-based economy, it shows how South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines have constructed reliable institutions and developed firm foundations for democratic practice.”

ECONOMICS

CALL NUMBER

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY

HC

79

E5

B368

2013

Bartelmus, P., & Bartelmus, A. (2013). Sustainability economics: An introduction. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

 

“The book is a concise introduction to an emerging field within economics. Drawing on numerous disciplines, including environmental science, environmental and ecological economics and optimal growth theory, sustainability remains a hazy and complex subject.”

HB

846.5

H56

2013

Hindriks, J., & Myles, G. D. (2013). Intermediate public economics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

 

“The book covers the theory and methodology of public economics; presents a historical and theoretical overview of the public sector; and discusses such topics as departures from efficiency (including imperfect competition and asymmetric information), issues in political economy, equity, taxation, fiscal federalism, and tax competition among independent jurisdiction. Suggestions for further reading, from classic papers to recent research, appear in each chapter, as do exercises. The mathematics has been kept to a minimum without sacrificing intellectual rigor; the book remains analytical rather than discursive. This second edition has been thoroughly updated throughout. It offers new chapters on behavioral economics, limits to redistribution, international taxation, cost-benefit analysis, and the economics of climate policy. Additional exercises have been added and many sections revised in response to advice from readers of the first edition.”

HF

1411

S239

2013

Salvatore, D. (2013). International economics (11th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

 

“Salvatore’s International Economics provides information about fundamental institutions and relationships that affect quality of life, and provides a framework for thinking through and understanding the process of decision making. Furthermore, the text is designed as a primary text for an introduction to basic economics or principles of economics and offers a balanced presentation of macroeconomics and microeconomics.”

HB

74.9

P5

N47

2002

Neri, R. L. (2002). Economics and public policy. Makati City, Philippines: Asian Institute of Management.

HF

1017

D63

2007

Doane, D. P., & Seward, L. E. (2007). Applied statistics in business statistics and economics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

 

“Offers an excel focused approach to using statistics in business. Various statistical concepts are illustrated with applied examples. Modern computing tools and applications are introduced, and the text maintains a focus on presenting statistical concepts as applied in business.”

LEADERSHIP

CALL NUMBER

BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY

HD

57.7

N38

2013

Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2013). Mastering self-leadership: Empowering yourself for personal excellence (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

 

"It starts with you-follow the best path to effectively leading others. Mastering Self-Leadership is a comprehensive self-help guide that,s thoroughly grounded in sound principles and research. The powerful advice and tools found in this text emphasize that proper self-leadership is a precursor for the effective leadership of others. This edition features new real-life examples and fresh coverage on corporate and entrepreneurial applications, social responsibility, emotional intelligence, and self-leadership."

JF

1525

L4

V36

2012

Van, W. M., & Suino, P. (2012). Leadership in public organizations: An introduction (2nd ed.). Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.

 

“Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the latest thinking in the field, this concise yet comprehensive treatment of public sector leadership is designed for upper division and graduate students, and can also serve as a guidebook for professionals. It offers a full, up-to-date review of public leadership theories, covers the major competency clusters in detail, and provides both the research on each competency and practical guidelines for improvement.

HM

1261

L413

2011

Pierce, J. L., & Newstrom, J. W. (2011). Leaders and the leadership process: Readings, self-assessments and applications (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

 

“The Sixth Edition of Pierce and Newstrom’s Leaders and the Leadership Process is a collection of readings, self-assessments, case studies and experiential exercises on leadership intended to give students a feel for the breadth and richness of this study. Leaders and the Leadership Process 6e provides students with a sense of the complexity associated with leadership in organizations as well as an understanding of the pieces that serve to define leadership. The authors create a "leadership mosaic," which encourages students to examine the concepts, propositions, perspectives, and theories individually as they build towards the student’s ultimate unique leadership mosaic.”

HD

57.7

G52

2011

Gill, R. (2011). Theory and practices of leadership (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications.

 

HM

141

U83

1998

Useem, M. (1998). The leadership moment: Nine true stories of triumph and disaster and their lessons for us all (1st ed.). New York, NY: Times Business.


       “This book presents accounts of nine experiences. We witness people at extraordinary moments. We examine how they guided their crew, company, or country through the climactic events that followed. Each account is about an individual who faced a turning point-and how that person led when it counted the most.”